Often the borer does not reach the center of the trunk, so the total number of years must be extrapolated from the radius of the trunk.
The radius (r) can be determined from the circumference of the trunk (C=2πr), or from special tape measures that give the diameter directly.
They will also analyze and experience how archaeologists can sometimes use tree rings to date archaeological evidence and study past climates. Over time, these yearly growth layers form a series of light and dark concentric circles, or tree rings, that are visible on cross sections of felled trees.
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Calibration is not only done before an analysis but also on analytical results as in the case of radiocarbon dating—an analytical method that identifies the age of a material that once formed part of the biosphere by determining its carbon-14 content and tracing its age by its radioactive decay.
Each year a tree’s growth ring has two parts; one is wide and light colored, and the other is narrow and dark. This grows during the wet spring and early summer when the tree has a lot of sap, and the cambium cells giving rise to the trunk growth are large and thin walled.
As the summer winds down and the transition to the cooler autumn occurs, the tree’s growth rate slows.